Various sensors for their unique manufacturing process

Integrated sensors are fabricated using standard process technology for the production of silicon-based semiconductor integrated circuits.
Part of the circuitry used to initially process the signal under test is also typically integrated on the same chip.
The thin film sensor is formed by a film of a corresponding sensitive material deposited on a dielectric substrate (substrate). When a mixing process is used, part of the circuit can also be fabricated on this substrate.
The thick film sensor is made by coating a slurry of a corresponding material on a ceramic substrate, which is usually made of Al2O3, and then heat-treated to form a thick film.
Ceramic sensors are produced using standard ceramic processes or some variation thereof (sol, gel, etc.).
After the appropriate preparatory operation is completed, the formed component is sintered at a high temperature. There are many common characteristics between the two processes of thick film and ceramic sensors. In some respects, the thick film process can be considered as a variant of the ceramic process.
Each process technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. Ceramic and thick film sensors are more reasonable due to lower capital investment required for research, development and production, and high stability of sensor parameters.